You downloaded data files, or maybe you compiled them yourself. How will you get those data into R?
R offers built-in functions that let you access either delimited (where a certain character separates values) or fixed-width (where each column uses a certain number of characters) files. Like other popular statistical packages, R even supports its own data file format. Let’s explore some frequently-used functions.
Read delimited files
Delimited files, such as CSV and TSV, are popular for their straightforward ability to work in a wide variety of software packages.
Read CSV files
If your file ends in the .csv extension, commas probably separate the values in each row. R offers the
read.csv function for this situation.
# Comma-separated values dat <- read.csv('file_path/file_name.csv')
In most cases, you can point the function directly to the file you want to open without setting more options. Assigning the data to an object, as shown here, will let you access it later in your R session.
Read TSV and other delimited files
If your file ends in .tsv (tab-separated values) or if it has another delimiter, try the function
# Tab-separated values dat <- read.delim('file_path/file_name.tsv')
read.delim assumes tabs separate the values. You can tell the function to separate values by space, vertical bar, or any other character using the
# Space-separated values dat <- read.delim('file_path/file_name.extension', sep = " ") # Vertical-bar-separated values dat <- read.delim('file_path/file_name.extension', sep = "|")
For more customization, try the function
read.table. Use Help to explore options such as changing the decimal indicator or skipping non-data rows at the top of the file.
# Documentation for read.table, read.csv, read.delim, etc. ?read.table
Read fixed-width files
If spacing and the number of characters determine where the columns of your data begin and end, you probably have fixed-width data. Use
read.fwf by telling the function both where to find the file and, using the widths argument, how many characters wide each column is.
dat <- read.fwf('file_path/file_name.extension', widths = c(col1_width, col2_width, ..., coln_width))
Load RDATA and RDA files
R can save data in its own .rdata or .rda file format. These files each can hold one or more objects, and all objects within a RDA file load into R together.
load('file_path/file_name.rda') # or load('file_path/file_name.rdata')
Note that you won’t assign these data. The
load function imports data objects with their original object names.
Read other file types
Don’t see your file type on this page?
For unsupported file types like XLSX, DTA, SAS7BDAT, and SAV; check out our post R Craft: Read Excel, Stata, and other Unsupported Data Files with R.
Or open your favorite internet search engine and search r how to open [file_extension] files. Someone probably faced this challenge before, leaving helpful suggestions.
With your data in R, you’re on your way to understanding and interpreting the information. You can learn more about exploring data and getting data ready for analysis in our recorded workshop R Basics: Prepare Data for Modeling and Analysis.